Boho-chic is a style of fashion drawing on various bohemian and hippie influences, which, at its height in late was associated particularly with actress Sienna Miller and model Kate Moss in the United Kingdom and as "boho" chic actress and businesswoman Mary-Kate Olsen in the United States. Many grisettes worked as artist's models, often providing sexual favours to the artists in addition to posing for them. Please discuss this issue on the article's talk page.
These, often working as seamstresses or milliner's assistants as well frequented bohemian artistic and cultural venues in Paris. Many grisettes worked as artist's models, often providing sexual favours to the artists in addition to posing for them. During the time of King Louis-Philippe they came to dominate the bohemian modelling scene. It is art that purifies everything, even a poor young woman's submission of her body. The grisette became a frequent character in French fiction but have been mentioned as early as in by Jonathan Swift.
The term, compare The grisette in poetry , signifies qualities of both flirtatiousness and intellectual aspiration, George du Maurier based large parts of Trilby on his experiences as a student in Parisian bohemia during the s.
Poe's story was based on the unsolved murder of Mary Cecilia Rogers near New York City, subtitled "A Sequel to ' The Murders in the Rue Morgue '", it was the first detective story to attempt the solution of a real crime.
In , the Westminster Review described a Bohemian as "simply an artist or littérateur who, consciously or unconsciously, secedes from conventionality in life and in art". During the s the term was associated in particular with the pre-Raphaelite movement, the group of artists and aesthetes of which Dante Gabriel Rossetti was the most prominent: As the s progressed, Rossetti would become the grand prince of bohemianism as his deviations from normal standards became more audacious.
And as he became this epitome of the unconventional, his egocentric demands necessarily required his close friends to remodel their own lives around him. His bohemianism was like a web in which others became trapped — none more so than William and Jane Morris.
Jane Morris , who was to become Rossetti's muse, epitomised, probably more than any of the women associated with the pre-Raphaelites, an unrestricted, flowing style of dress that, while unconventional at the time, would be highly influential at certain periods during the 20th century. Imagine a tall lean woman in a long dress of some dead purple stuff, guiltless of hoops or of anything else I should say with a mass of crisp black hair heaped into great wavy projections on each of her temples … a long neck, without any collar, and in lieu thereof some dozen strings of outlandish beads.
In his play Pygmalion Bernard Shaw unmistakably based the part of Mrs. Higgins on the then elderly Jane Morris. Higgins' drawing room, he referred to a portrait of her "when she defied the fashion of her youth in one of the beautiful Rossettian costumes which, when caricatured by people who did not understand, led to the absurdities of popular estheticism [sic] in the eighteen-seventies".
A biographer of Edward Burne-Jones, writing a century after Shaw Fiona MacCarthy, , has noted that, in , when the influential Biba store was opened in London by Barbara Hulanicki , the "long drooping structureless clothes", though sexier than the dresses portrayed in such Burne-Jones paintings as The Golden Stairs or The Sirens , nevertheless resembled them.
Effie Gray , whose marriage to John Ruskin was annulled in prior to her marrying the pre-Raphaelite painter John Millais , is known to have used flowers as an adornment and probably also as an assertive "statement".
While in Scotland with Ruskin still her husband and Millais, she gathered foxgloves to place in her hair. She wore them at breakfast despite being asked by her husband not to do so, a gesture of defiance, at a time of growing crisis in their relationship, that came to the critical notice of Florence Nightingale  who tended to regard others of her sex with "scarcely concealed scorn" and was generally unsympathetic to "women's rights" .
A few weeks earlier, on Midsummer Day , Effie possibly inspired by Shakespeare 's A Midsummer Night's Dream was said by her hostess, Pauline Trevelyan , to have "looked lovely" with stephanotis in her hair at an evening party in Northumberland ,  while, the previous year, a male friend had brought glass flowers for her hair from Venice. In Millais painted Effie with Foxgloves in her Hair which depicts her wearing the flowers while doing needlework.
Other paintings of the mid-to-late 19th century, such as Frederick Sandys ' Love's Shadow of a girl with a rose in her hair, sucking a sprig of blossom, which was described in as "a first rate PR job for the Flower People",  and Burne-Jones' The Heart of the Rose ,  have been cited as foreshadowing the " flower power " of the mid-to-late s.
By the turn of the 20th century, an increasing number of professional women, notably in America , were attempting to live outside the traditional parameters of society. The invention of the typewriter in was a particular spur: By this time, such movements as the Rational Dress Society , with which the Morrises and Georgiana Burne-Jones were involved, were beginning to exercise some influence on women's dress, although the pre-Raphaelite look was still considered "advanced" in the late years of the 19th century.
It was widely understood that Tilley sought additional authenticity by wearing male underclothing, although off stage she was much more conventional in both her dress and general outlook. By the early s, what had been a wartime expedient — the need to economise on material — had become a statement of freedom by young women, manifested by shorter hemlines just above the knee by —6  and boyish hairstyles, accompanied by what Robert Graves and Alan Hodge described as "the new fantastic development of Jazz music".
From then on, sportwear for women, as with day-to-day clothes, became freer,  although, after the Second World War , when the American player Gussie Moran appeared at the Wimbledon championships of in a short skirt that revealed lace-trimmed panties , the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club accused her of bringing "vulgarity and sin into tennis" and shunned the outfit's designer Teddy Tinling for many years.
The Penguin Social History of Britain noted that "by the s newspapers were filled with advertisements for 'lingerie' and 'undies' which would have been classed as indecent a generation earlier". But in the summer you know, we don't According to Gable, "the idea was looking half-naked and scaring the brat into her own bed on the other side of the blanket [hanging from a clothesline to separate twin beds]".
However, he "gave the impression that going without was a vital sign of a man's virility"  More generally, the adoption by the American movie industry of the Hays Production Code in the early s had a significant effect on how moral, and especially sexual, issues were depicted on film.
This included a more conservative approach to matters of dress. Whereas the sort of scanty lingerie on show in some earlier productions for example, Joan Blondell and Barbara Stanwyck in Night Nurse ,  had tended to reflect trends that, in the s, defied convention and were regarded many young women as liberating, by the early years of the Depression such displays came to be regarded quite widely as undesirable. Developments in the late s and 70s, when the strictures of the code were abandoned, followed a similar pattern, although, by then, it was often women themselves who were in the vanguard of resistance to sexualised imagery.
Looking back at this period, Graves and Hodge noted the protracted course that "daring female fashions had always taken Among female Bohemians in the early 20th century, the "gypsy look" was a recurring theme, popularised by, among others, Dorothy "Dorelia" McNeill — , muse , lover and second wife of the painter Augustus John — , whose full skirts and bright colours gave rise to the so-called "Dorelia look".
Everett recalled also the Johns' woods "with wild cherry trees in blossom, and By contrast, short bobbed hair was often a Bohemian trait,  having originated in Paris c.
This style was plainly discernible on a woodblock self-portrait of by Dora Carrington , who had entered the Slade in ,  and, indeed, the journalist and historian Sir Max Hastings has referred to "poling punts occupied by reclining girls with bobbed hair" as an enduring, if misleading, popular image of the "idyll before the storm" of the First World War.
Scott Fitzgerald 's short story, Bernice Bobs Her Hair , a young woman who wishes to become a "society vamp " regards the adoption of a bob as a necessary prelude,  while Louise Brooks' sexually charged performance as Lulu in G.
Pabst 's film, Pandora's Box , left an enduring image of the style, which has been replicated on screen over the years, most vividly by Cyd Charisse in Singin' in the Rain , Isabelle de Funès as Valentina in Baba Yaga  and Melanie Griffith in Something Wild It was associated also with many popular singers and actresses in the s and has frequently been evoked by writers and directors, as well as fashion designers, seeking to recapture the hedonsitic or free spirit of the s.
For example, Kerry Greenwood 's Cocaine Blues and succeeding novels about Phryne Fisher , a glamorous, but unconventional aristocratic investigator in late twenties Melbourne , Australia, conveyed an image — "five feet two [ Around an even shorter style, known as the " Eton crop ", became popular: She was dressed in a fisherman's jersey and knickerbockers". In the same book, Miss Mapp frequently — and topically — addressed Lucia, to her irritation, as "Lulu".
For many years trite assumptions were often made about the sexuality of women with cropped hairstyles; an historian of the s wrote of the Greenham Common "peace camp" in England that it "brought public awareness to feminist separation and even to lesbianism, hitherto seen in the mass media — when acknowledged at all — either in terms of Eton-cropped androgyny or of pornographic fantasy".
One social historian has observed that "the innocuous woollen jersey, now known [in Britain] as the jumper or the pullover, was the first item of clothing to become interchangeable between men and women and, as such, was seen as a dangerous symptom of gender confusion". After the Second World War Christian Dior 's " New Look ", launched in Paris in , though drawing on styles that had begun to emerge in ,  set the pattern for women's fashion generally until the s.
Harking back in some ways to the Belle Epoque of the late 19th and early 20th centuries — and thus not a "new" look as such by early , it was simply known as "The Look" in America  — it was criticised by some as excessively feminine and, with its accompanying corsets and rustle of frilled petticoats , as setting back the "work of emancipation won through participation in two world wars".
American influences had been discouraged during the Nazi occupation of France , but, notably in the form of be-bop and other types of jazz, were strong among intellectual café society in the mid-to-late s. These included Roger Vadim who married and launched the career of actress Brigitte Bardot in the s , novelist Boris Vian since described as "the epitome of Left Bank bohemia, standing at the center of its postwar rehabilitation"  and singer Juliette Gréco.
At the liberation of Paris in , the American journalist Ernie Pyle observed that the women were all "brightly dressed in white or red blouses and colourful peasant skirts, with flowers in their hair and big flashy earrings. When I was a teenager in Paris I only had one dress and one pair of shoes, so the boys in the house started dressing me in their old black coats and trousers. A fashion was shaped out of misery.
When people copied me I found it a little ridiculous, but I didn't mind. It made me smile. Performing in London over fifty years later, Gréco was described as "still ooz[ing] bohemian style". Capturing the spirit of the time, David Profumo has written of how his mother, the actress Valerie Hobson , was entranced by Roger Vadim's flatmate, the director Marc Allégret , while she was filming Blanche Fury in Allégret's apparently bohemian lifestyle appealed sharply to her romantic side For an attractive British woman who felt deprived of attention The previous year a perfume created for Hobson had been marketed as "Great Expectations" to coincide with her role as Estella Havisham in David Lean 's film of that name, based on Charles Dickens ' novel.
In England, this attracted the custom of then- Oxford University undergraduate Margaret Roberts, later British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher , who, a little daringly for the time, also shopped for "push-up" pink brassieres. A Daily Mirror journalist described her "pale, ladylike looks, her well-bred clothes Of course, these people live in a raffish, theatrical, bohemian society where no one really knows anyone and everyone is "darling"".
Post-war Paris was recalled fondly in when France introduced a ban on smoking in public places. The aroma of Gauloises and Gitanes was, for many years, thought to be an inseparable feature of Parisian café society, but the owner of Les Deux Magots , once frequented by Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir , Albert Camus and other writers, observed that "things have changed. The writers of today are not so addicted to cigarettes". The bohemian traits of post-war Paris spread to other urban parts of the French-speaking world, notably to Algiers , where an underground culture of "jazz clubs, girls and drugs" grew up - in the words of punk rock producer Marc Zermati , who was in the city at the height of the Algerian war in the late s, "all very French".
In major industrial and student unrest in Paris and other parts of France came close to ousting the government of President Charles de Gaulle , who, after leading the Free French during the Second World War, had returned to power at the time of the Algerian emergency.
The events of represented a further significant landmark in post-war France,  although their longer term impact was probably more on cultural, social and academic life than on the political system, which, through the constitution of the Fifth Republic , has remained broadly intact. Its students were more modish and "trendy" than those of the Sorbonne in the city's Latin Quarter , being described at the time in terms that typify more generally the styles and attitudes of young people the late s:.
It is the girls that give the show away - culottes , glossy leather, mini-skirts , boots - driving up in Mini-Coopers Rebellious sentiment is more obvious among the boys: The picture in Nanterre in May was lots and lots of painted dollies cohabiting with unkempt revolutionaries. In the United States adherents of the " beat " counter-culture probably best defined by Jack Kerouac 's novel, On the Road , set in the late s, written in and published in were associated with black polo-neck or turtle neck sweaters, blue denim jeans and sandals.
The influence of this movement could be seen in the persona and songs of Bob Dylan in the early to mids, "road" films like Easy Rider and the punk -oriented "New Wave" of the mids, which, among other things, produced a boho style icon in Deborah Harry of the New York band Blondie , whom photographer David LaChapelle has described as "the definition of cool ".
New York's Greenwich Village , which, since the late 19th century, had attracted many women with feminist or " free love " ideals,  was a particular magnet for bohemians in the early s. Bob Dylan's girl-friend Suze Rotolo , who appeared with him on the cover of his second album The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan , recalled that the Village was "where people like me went — people who didn't belong where they came from.. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band , is said to have caused the guru of psychedelia, Timothy Leary , to remark that "my work is finished".
The documentary film, Festival Murray Lerner , , recorded how the "clean-cut college kids" who attended the Newport Rhode Island Folk Festival in had, by when Bob Dylan caused a sensation at that year's festival by playing an electric guitar , become "considerably scruffier": The London art dealer Jeremy Maas reflected in the mids that. It was observed by all of us who were involved with these exhibitions [of pre-Raphaelite paintings] that visitors included increasing numbers of the younger generation, who had begun to resemble the figures in the pictures they had come to see.
When, in August , Sienna and Savannah Miller launched their own fashion label, Twenty8Twelve so-called after Sienna's birthday, 28 December , one commentator referred to Sienna's "own brand of Notting Hillbilly chic" a reference to London W10 and remarked that, "with [her] love of all things boho, it's unsurprising to see a thread of louche, folksy styling running through the line".
Another, rather distinctive, exponent of the "vintage" look was actress and singer Zooey Deschanel , who, in June , appeared on the front cover of the magazine BlackBook in a black lace-edged swimsuit. She tiptoes in looking like a graceful version of boho-chic year-olds found everywhere from Brooklyn to Silver Lake, with an Obama [Democratic Presidential candidate] button on her vintage coat and [t]he New Yorker rolled up in her pocket Jess's fashion preferences, including some striking brassières in a range of colours,  attracted much interest, while, around the same time, Anastasia Ana Steel's tastes in E.
James ' best-selling erotic novel Fifty Shades of Grey were thought to have assisted sales of exotic lingerie. Emma Kurtzman was shown dressing hastily for work in a lacy blue bra in the film, No Strings Attached and was Ana's own preference: Although boho once again appeared to be on the wane by , elements of it were clearly in evidence in collections for spring and summer Fashion Union advertised "spring's new bohemian trend in full bloom" and "hippie chic tops on loveworn denims",  while Avon introduced a perfumed spray called "Boho Chic".
Monsoon , founded in and still described by the Sunday Times in as "the boho chic fashion retailer", saw its pre-tax profits rise dramatically during the recession of the late noughties: In the Sunday Times anticipated that the medieval head chain — "a step on from the hippie head band" — would be a feature of that year's festival circuit, "instantly adding summer bohemia to your look".
These included a cream crochet dress by Marc Jacobs " haute hippie" and a devoré dress and fringed scarf by Pucci "boho splendour". By the late autumn of The Times noted the desirability in the UK of fake fur "Recession chic lets Britain go full pelt for the fake fur" , with Marks and Spencer and Sainsbury's TU retailing bestselling coats at a time of economic stringency. As Armstrong put it wrily, the Impossible was "perfect for après-ski " in the fashionably bohemian London districts of Primrose Hill or Dalston.
Many parents have also embraced the Boho Chic trends and elements to create and purchase apparel for their children. This particular trend is inspired by the casual American fashion of the s, but as the counterculture included the influences of earlier time periods in its eclectic embrace of style and personal values, it often includes hints of the Victorian, a nod to the fabrics and details of the s, or an homage to the intellectuals of the 's.
Many, including actress Lindsay Lohan ,  attributed the boho look to supermodel Kate Moss who in had been associated, through an advertising campaign for Calvin Klein , with the so-called " heroin chic " or " waif " look.
In fact the Australian journalist Laura Demasi used the term "boho-chic" as early as October with reference to Moss and Jade Jagger. In April , the British-born fashion writer Plum Sykes was quoted as saying of a lynx mini-top, "Very cool, very bohemian, very Kate Moss—y";  and in Times fashion editor Lisa Armstrong described a plaited leather belt of the previous year as a "Boho 'Kate' belt". In the Sunday Times applied the term "real chic" to a group of "the chicest celebrities", including Miller and actresses Julie Christie and Marion Cotillard , who "handle the glare of fame with a large dose of reality", Miller being described as "a professional free spirit who, annoyingly, seems to have more fun than anyone else".
A beguillingly shambolic Sienna is seen sobbing on the beach busting a wartime make-do-and-mend look: One reviewer observed of Miller's role that "Caitlin is meant to be a boho girl and free spirit, which is a posh way of saying she's a drunk who is promiscuous". The cross-generational appeal of boho influenced, among other things, the ranges that brought about a revival in the fortunes of Marks and Spencer in — In the Sunday Times identified fur gilets and "ugg-a-likes" as preferred winter wear for middle-aged women whom it described as the " botox -and-better-sex-after brigade".
In their differing ways, British singers Joss Stone who, in , named American singer Gwen Stefani as her style icon  and was by then combining an independent professional career with the lifestyle of a " Devon hippy"  and notwithstanding an early tendency to be associated with photographic spreads for " lads' magazines " Rachel Stevens  were both held up in the mid-noughties as exemplars of boho.
So, a few years later, were Diana Vickers and another teenaged singer, Pixie Lott. Following an event in , the Daily Mail commented about Vickers that.
The year-old, who spent much of her time on the ITV show running around barefoot, opted to cover up her feet with the charity shop footwear. The footwear drew attention away from the singer's stylish sixties style black and red dress which was split open at the back to reveal her bra. For her part, Pixie Lott cited French screen goddess Brigitte Bardot and Edie Sedgwick as her fashion icons — and Factory Girl as her favourite film — and defined her look as "vintage clothes, which I mix with contemporary stuff, or I'll be indie and hippie, with accessories such as rings, chains and headbands I like to wear girlie things, but only if I can rock them up with biker boots or a jacket".
The impact of boho illustrated certain broader trends in what Shane Watson referred to as "the way we dress now": Once they had spotted new fashions, young women were not prepared to wait a season for them to become available and, consequently, the familiar boundaries between summer wear and that for autumn and winter were becoming blurred.
As Jane Shepherdson , brand director of the clothing chain Topshop , put it, "when Sienna wore that gilet, we had to pull them forward fast She was doing boho in the autumn, and we were expecting it to be a trend for the following spring. Girls see it and they want it immediately". The practice of meeting such demand, pioneered by the Spanish firm Zara , and of which Shepherdson, until she left Topshop in , was the leading British proponent,  became known as " fast fashion ".
By Midsummer , the Sunday Times had discerned a trend that fused aspects of boho-chic with " heavy metal attitude": A look described by the Sunday Times in Autumn as "modern goth" was a more stylised version, exuding a " bondage vibe" and contrasting "soft, light fabrics The gothic look was in vogue again in the autumn of , a sleeker "dark Victorian style" being associated with, among others, Sienna Miller, twin actresses Mary-Kate and Ashley Olsen through their clothing label, The Row , the Australian model Gemma Ward  and the rising Ukrainian singer Mika Newton the latter notably in photographs associated with her début album of , Anomaliya.
In Nicole Scherzinger , lead vocalist of the Pussycat Dolls , described her off-stage image as "understated-rock-boho-chic",  while, in the autumn of , under the heading "Boho with bite", the Mail on Sunday advised readers after "dark, soft, floaty fabrics [to] flirt heavily with leather and lace, kohl and killer heels" and to "think laid-back cool with a shot of vamp ".
Welch has cited as her stylistic icons singer Marianne Faithfull , who had been closely associated with the Rolling Stones in the s,  and her former English teacher who used to "come to school in crushed- velvet gowns like a medieval maiden  However, her stage image, which owed much to her long dyed red hair ,  called to mind the pre-Raphaelite muses  who, in certain respects, had anticipated the hippie styles of a century later.
Reflecting on Welch's broader influence, one rock journalist noted in that "even Cheryl Cole [of Girls Aloud and an X Factor judge] has gone gothic princess on her Elson told a Times journalist that she had always been "the weird looking one" in modelling circles and remarked of herself and her then husband Jack White of the rock duo White Stripes that "there's going to be a point when our children view us as the Addams Family ".
Like Welch, Elson exuded pre-Raphaelite features, though a marked gothic strain was also apparent when, as a singer on stage in , she wore a long salmon dress with black lace edging.
Similarly, her lingerie portfolio that year for Agent Provocateur combined gothic and boho-rock features,  there being, for example, a certain resonance between a black and white brassiere and panties set that formed part of that collection and the black swimsuit in which Zooey Deschanel was photographed in In some detected a pre-Raphaelite line to the Alexander McQueen dress, designed by Sarah Burton , for Catherine Middleton 's wedding to Prince William, Duke of Cambridge ,  Middleton's somewhat medieval headdress called to mind images from paintings by such later pre-Raphaelites as John Waterhouse and Edward Burne-Jones ,  the overall impression being especially apparent in a side-on double page photograph of the couple by Max Mumby on the cover of the following day's edition of the London Times.
In advance of Glastonbury , the Sunday Times coined the term "festival chic", for a style with some similarities to boho. Almost an extension of "festival chic", the Telegraph coined the term "foho" to describe the evolution of the boho style in the summer of The London Evening Standard referred to "hippie chic" a term used in the s with reference to the velvet kaftans created by Tom Ford for the Italian house of Gucci in a feature about "gypsy queens",  while the Sunday Times , reflecting on what "the fashion world called This image was described by Lisa Armstrong as "typif[ying] the luxe bohemian look".
In the United States, Mary-Kate and Ashley Olsen , especially the former, were credited with a "homeless" look, first identified as such in Greenwich Village , New York in late , that had many "boho" features large sunglasses, flowing skirts, boots and loose jumpers.
This was sometimes referred to as "ashcan chic". Bobo chic was associated in particular with punks in the SoHo area of Lower Manhattan , to the south of Greenwich Village. It was described by a student fashion writer as "paying to look poor" and having been "made popular by silver screen stars who all look like they got dressed in the dark like the Olsen twins, Kirsten Dunst and Chloë Sevigny ".
I actually looked homeless". A " catwalk ", a refinement in , of which actresses Kate Bosworth and Thandie Newton were said to be exponents, was referred to as "cocktail grunge" — "looking done-undone Momsen described her style as "sweet and tough, grunge meets Chanel — a giant oxymoron " and claimed that she chose her outfits from "whatever clean clothes she finds on her floor" "although no one ever believes me".
In the world of Parisian fashion, the term bobo short for Bourgeois Bohème , which also had political connotations, was applied to "typically discerning customers who are left wing and Left Bank ";  or, put another way, "that subset of thirty- or forty-something -year-olds who don't allow their socialist leanings to interfere with an enjoyment of material pleasures". The bobo style of dress has been described as "retro-hippie- shabby-chic ",  its elements including jersey tops, boiled wool jackets, smart jeans , Converse training shoes and leather bags by Jerome Dreyfuss born Simplicity is true elegance".
She herself professed a liking for vintage clothing:. I think they look best like that, slightly dishevelled.
Shop the latest Boho looks with a modern update! Lulus is ahead-of-the-trends with Boho-chic dresses, separates, jewelry, and shoes! Love the pants ╰☆╮Boho chic bohemian boho style hippy hippie chic bohème vibe gypsy fashion indie folk outfit╰☆╮ Find this Pin and more on Dream Closet by Marissa Trigos. What to Pack: Honeymoon Essentials - Fashion Trends. About Free People. Free People, a specialty women’s clothing brand, is the destination for bohemian fashion that features the latest trends and vintage collections for women who live free through fashion, art, music, and travel.