Stitch marks indicate that the shift originally had a drawstring under the bust. What is an apron panel?
Native American Breastplates If you're looking for a Plains Indian breastplate, these Blackfeet artists make really beautiful ones. The rods are traditionally made of bone hairpipe or buffalo horn. American Indian breastplates were originally worn by Plains warriors as armor, but today Native men only wear them ceremonially, as regalia.
Silversmith Indian Regalia Ribbon shirts and dresses, dance regalia, and Native American wedding dresses by a Cayuga seamstress. Seminole Indian Clothing The Seminole Tribe of Florida is selling beautiful Seminole patchwork skirts, jackets, capes, and shirts, including children's clothing.
Metis Clothing Traditional finger-woven sashes and fringed buckskin jackets from a Metis artists' cooperative. The most universal element of Native American dress, moccasins were worn throughout North America and into Central America, and remain popular footwear among many Indian tribes today. Visit our Native American Moccasins page to buy some from contemporary Indian artists.
It is worn by women of all ages. The bottom portion, draped from the waist downwards is called the Mekhela Assamese: It is in the form of a sarong—very wide cylinder of cloth—that is folded into pleats to fit around the waist and tucked in. The folds are to the right, as opposed to the pleats in the Nivi style of the saree, which are folded to the left. Strings are never used to tie the mekhela around the waist, though an underskirt with a string is often used.
The top portion of the three-piece dress, called the Sador Assamese: The Sador is tucked in triangular folds. A fitted blouse is worn to cover the breasts. The third piece is called a Riha , which is worn under the Sador. It is narrow in width. This traditional dress of the Assamese women are very famous for their exclusive patterns on the body and the border. Women wear them during important religious and ceremonious occasions of marriage.
Riha is worn exactly like a Sador and is used as Orni. Salwar is a generic description of the lower garment incorporating the Punjabi salwar, Sindhi suthan, Dogri pajamma also called suthan and the Kashmiri suthan.
The salwar kameez is the traditional wear of women in Punjab , Haryana and Himachal Pradesh and is called the Punjabi suit which is most common in the northwestern part of India Punjab region.
The Punjabi suit also includes the "churidaar" and "kurta" ensemble which is also popular in Southern India where it is known as the "churidaar". The salwar kameez has become the most popular dress for females. It consists of loose trousers the salwar narrow at the ankles, topped by a tunic top the kameez. The material for the dupatta usually depends upon that of the suit, and is generally of cotton, georgette , silk, chiffon among others. Many actresses wear the salwar kameez in Bollywood movies.
The suthan, similar to the salwar is common in Sindh where it is worn with the cholo  and Kashmir where it is worn with the Phiran. The patiala salwar is an exaggeratedly wide version of the salwar, its loose pleats stitched together at the bottom. Churidaar is a variation on the salwar, loose above the knees and tightly fitted to the calf below. While the salwar is baggy and caught in at the ankle, the churidar fits below the knees with horizontal gathers near the ankles.
The anarkali suit is made up of a long, frock-style top and features a slim fitted bottom. The anarkali is an extremely desirable style that is adorned by women located in Northern India, Pakistan and The Middle East. The anarkali suit varies in many different lengths and embroideries including floor length anarkali styles. Many women will also opt for heavier embroidered anarkali suits on wedding functions and events. Indian women wear anarkali suits on various other occasions as well such as traditional festivals, casual lunch, anniversary celebrations etc.
The kameez of the anarkali can be sleevelesss or with sleeves ranging from cap- to wrist-length. It is a combination of lehenga , a tight choli and an odhani. A lehenga is a form of a long skirt which is pleated. It is usually embroidered or has a thick border at the bottom.
A choli is a blouse shell garment, which is cut to fit to the body and has short sleeves and a low neck. Different styles of ghagra cholis are worn by the women, ranging from a simple cotton lehenga choli as a daily wear, a traditional ghagra with mirrors embellished usually worn during navratri for the garba dance or a fully embroidered lehenga worn during marriage ceremonies by the bride.
Popular among unmarried women other than salwar kameez are Gagra choli and Langa voni. Pattu Pavadai or Langa davani is a traditional dress in south India and Rajasthan, usually worn by teenage and small girls. The pavada is a cone-shaped skirt, usually of silk, that hangs down from the waist to the toes. It normally has a golden border at the bottom.
Girls in south India often wear pattu pavadai or Langa davani during traditional functions. Girls in Rajasthan wear this dress before marriage and after marriage with sight modification in certain section of society. This dress is a three-piece garment where the langa or lehanga is the cone shaped long flowing skirt. Additionally, recently pants and shirts have been accepted as traditional Indian dress by the Government of India. Kaupin is unsewn and langota is sewn loincloth worn as underwear in dangal held in akharas especially wrestling , to prevent hernias and hydrocele.
It is mandatory for Sikhs to wear kacchera. Dhoti is the national dress of India. A dhoti is from four to six feet long white or colour strip of cotton. This traditional attire is mainly worn by men in villages. In India men also wear long, white sarong like sheets of cloth known as Mundu. It's called dhotar in Marathi. Over the dhoti, men wear shirts. A Lungi , also known as sarong , is a traditional garment of India. A Mundu is a lungi, except that it is always white.
It is usually tucked in when the person is working, in fields or workshops, and left open usually as a mark of respect, in worship places or when the person is around dignitaries. Lungis, generally, are of two types: The open lungi is a plain sheet of cotton or silk, whereas the stitched one has both of its open ends stitched together to form a tube like structure.
Though mostly worn by men, elderly women also prefer lungi to other garments owing to its good aeration. The length is usually just below the knees and the jacket ends just below the knee. The jacket has a Nehru collar ,  which is a collar that stands up.
Churidars are trousers that are loose around the hips and thighs, but are tight and gathered around the ankle. A scarf called a dupatta is sometimes added to the achkan. A Jodhpuri or a Bandhgala is a formal evening suit from India. Also known as Jodhpuri Suit ,  it is a western style suit product, with a coat and a trouser , at times accompanied by a vest. It brings together the western cut with Indian hand- embroidery escorted by the Waist coat.
The material can be silk or any other suiting material. Normally, the material is lined at the collar and at the buttons with embroidery. This can be plain, jacquard or jamewari material. Normally, the trousers match that of the coat. There is also a trend now to wear contrasting trousers to match the coat colour. Bandhgala quickly became a popular formal and semi-formal uniform across Rajasthan and eventually throughout India.
Angarakha is a traditional upper garment worn in the Indian Subcontinent which overlap and are tied to the left or right shoulder. Historically, the Angrakha was a court outfit that a person could wrap around himself, offering flexible ease with the knots and ties appropriate for wearing in the various principalities of ancient India.
Sari jama The jama is a long coat which was popular during the Mughal period. There are many types of jama costumes which were worn in various regions of South Asia , the use of which began to wane by the end of the 19th century A. The Indian turban or the pagri is worn in many regions in the country, incorporating various styles and designs depending on the place. Other types of headgear such as the Taqiyah and Gandhi cap are worn by different communities within the country to signify a common ideology or interest.
The Dastar, also known as a pagri , is a turban worn by the Sikh community of India. Is a symbol of faith representing values such as valour, honour and spirituality among others. This pocket probably was the product of a professional embroiderer who did needlework for a living.
Most women wore their pockets hidden under their petticoats. An envelope asserts that this was the "Stock of George 2nd," king of England from to Although the envelope dates to the 19th century and is not conclusive as documentation, the account may be true. The history is made more believable by virtue of the tiny cross-stitched crown and the number 46 stitched on the back of the tapered tab.
The number suggests that the owner had at least 45 other stocks. The incredibly fine stitching and materials also help to support the history. These shoes are embellished with applied braid similar to those in the portrait of Deborah Glen of Albany, painted about In period documents, shoes such as these would be called "laced," not to be confused with shoes with ties.
These would be fastened with buckles. Thomas Ridout and James Davis. Chatelaines were brooches or hooks suspended from the waist with pendants of useful implements, such as household keys, thimble cases, seals, watches, and the like.
This chatelaine includes a watch, a watch key for winding the watch, and two seals for stamping the wax seal of a letter. The word chatelaine came to mean the mistress of a household. This fan depicts a battle in the Caribbean between Great Britain and Spain.
Porto Bello in Panama was a Spanish naval base; the British won the Battle of Porto Bello and took over the base, to great acclaim at home. The title came from a commercial sea captain named Robert Jenkins, who displayed before Parliament his severed ear damaged in by Spanish coast guards who had boarded his ship.
Sleeve ruffles were usually shaped to be narrower at the inside crook of the arm, gradually lengthening so they fell gracefully from the back of the elbow. A widow may have worn this black worsted gown. Alterations and numerous mended holes are evidence that the garment saw many years of use. Typical of most elaborately patterned worsted textiles, this fabric measures only 17 inches between the selvages.
Fans often celebrated current events, such as the Battle of Portobello, an acclaimed British victory over the Spanish in Panama. This fan is also a good pictorial source for everyday clothing. Some of the sailors depicted on this fan wear jackets and short trousers typical of workingmen's clothing. Trousers of the eighteenth century were loose, comfortable pants that ranged from knee- to ankle-length.
Although women's everyday caps were made of plain white linen or cotton, expensive dress caps were sometimes fashioned from handmade lace.
The long decorative strips hanging from the cap were called lappets. Typical of men's breeches before about , this pair fastens with a buttoned placket down the center front. Probably to save fabric, the tailor cut the breeches with the pattern running in two different directions on the front and back. The Battle of Cartagena, which took place in , brought together English and American forces in a battle against Spain over control of Spain's holdings in the Caribbean.
In contrast to Porto Bello, the British were unsuccessful at Cartagena, partly due to disease. As the engraved inscription around the miniature indicates, William Gooch died in at the age of The miniature portrait was painted after his death as a memorial, possibly copying a larger portrait of him.
The central female figure wears a tentlike sack dress with loose flowing pleats at front and back, a style that had come into fashion around the s. Eventually, the sack gown evolved to one with fitted front and pleated back.
The man's suit has large cuffs and full skirts pleated at the sides. Despite remodeling that is especially evident in the piecing of the sack back, this gown has superlative beauty. The heavily embellished gold stomacher and gilt brocading threads glitter in the light. Wavy lines of applied trim add extra pattern to the already lavish skirt front. The petticoat, or skirt worn beneath the outer gown, is made of a different silk textile, possibly because the original petticoat was cut up for the remodeling.
From to , women's gowns had closely-fitted bodices, sleeves that usually ended just below the elbows, and full skirts. The gown was only a small part of the look, however. Delicate and expensive white accessories, such as kerchiefs, aprons, and sleeve ruffles could dress up a plain dark gown. Shoes and stockings protected the feet, but also allowed the wearer to show off the latest fashion in the shape of the toe or the height of the heel.
Removable shoe buckles changed the appearance of a pair of shoes while also serving to fasten the shoes in place. The well-dressed man needed more than a suit to assure his place in fashionable society. From the wig or hat on his head to the tips of his buckled shoes, gentlemen's accessories could be practical, stylish, or both. Pastel colors and glittery stones were considered manly and appropriate for dressy occasions.
Although they may look like diamonds, less expensive paste stones set in silver created a brilliant effect in this matching set of necklace and earrings for pierced ears. The necklace has loops at the ends for ribbons to tie around the neck. The box has padded interior wells for housing the three matching pieces of jewelry when not worn. William Meredith; Silver metallic threads and silver plate on wooden form, linen thread.
According to family tradition, these buckles were handed down in the Van Rensselaer-Sanders family of New York. Family members wore them at their weddings as late as Note the T-shaped fitting on the back to slip through a buttonhole in the breeches knee band. These stockings were knitted as flat pieces using stocking frames operated by male workmen. The foot or sole sections were knitted separately. The two pieces making up each stocking were then sewn together by female workers.
Decorative areas at the ankles, called clocks, were either put in during the knitting process, as in these two examples, or embroidered after the stocking was taken off the frame. The stocking frame was invented in by Englishman William Lee. Although professionally frame-knit stockings were available for purchase, many housewives knit their family's stockings by hand using knitting needles.
Women sometimes wore sleeve buttons to fasten their shift sleeves. In the portrait of Deborah Glen, she holds up her right arm to show her fine lace-edged shift with two buttonholes in the cuff for removable sleeve buttons, linked together. Although banyans were styled to be loose and comfortable, they were nevertheless worn with a full set of clothing underneath, including shirt, breeches, and waistcoat. This banyan has a sleeveless waistcoat made of matching fabric. Old pleats at the front are evidence that this banyan was remade from a woman's sack-back gown.
Men's clothing usually differed in pattern from women's gowns. Except for embroidered formal wear, most suits were made with solid, striped, or small-patterned textiles. Only loose banyans such as this were considered suitable for large-scale damasks or brocaded silks. Josiah Bartlett, a signer of the Declaration of Independence and the first governor of New Hampshire, wore this cocked hat.
The modern term for this triangular style of cocking is "tricorn hat. The finest stockings were knitted of silk and decorated at the ankles with clocks, decorative embroidery or knitted-in designs. These knitted stockings were made on a stocking frame, or knitting machine, as two flat pieces.
The curved edges of the larger piece were later joined by hand to form a center-back leg seam. The sole was a separate smaller piece that was sewn into the foot. Cora Ginsburg; Silk brocaded with silver and silver gilt, lined with silk and linen, trimmed with later silver lace. This sumptuous gown is fashioned from stiff silk brocaded with glittering metallic silver to reflect the available light. The rich textile and wide hoops mark it as "formal" dress in an era when fashionable daytime clothing no longer had significant side fullness.
Unlike many other dresses that had removable triangular stomachers, this gown has panels on the bodice that are stitched in place and closed with buttons and buttonholes down the center front.
Button-front mock stomachers such as this example came into fashion during the mids. Chinese artisans made textiles specifically for export to Europe and America. With its intricate hand-painted floral design and silver outlines, this textile would have been a luxury item. Styled as a robe à la française in England, known as a sack , the back has pleats at the shoulders that release into a graceful train. The mock stomacher buttons down the front. The skirt and petticoat originally had applied ruffles or flounces, perhaps removed to update the gown.
This petticoat features diamonds filled with a variety of motifs, including flowers, fish, birds, and other animals; it is dated in the quilting and signed by an unknown woman whose initials were S.
Although ready-made quilted petticoats were imported, some girls and women quilted their own petticoats at home.
Many of them used imported materials, such as the silk in this example. The embroidery is worked with chain stitches and large areas of "drawnwork," in which the ground fabric is deflected, pulled, and caught with stitches to imitate lace. This clever workbag incorporates four compartments for needlework and knitting supplies: The rigid structure appears to be made of paperboard and trade cards.
King's Dover Street" can be read through the thin silk. This probably refers to the as-yet unidentified milliner who made the bag. Inside this pocketbook is a lock of silky hair, probably that of a child. When and why was the hair tucked into the case? Was it a loving gesture on the part of a parent or grandparent? No information was included in the pocketbook about the hair, so we may never know. Men's breeches, or knee-length pants, had a number of fasteners.
This pair has a tab at the back for adjusting the waist size with a buckle the buckle is missing. Other breeches had eyelets and laces for this purpose. Where the buttons were hidden by the waistcoat, or vest, they are covered with fabric. Because the lower legs and knees were more visible, elaborate silver plate and silver bullion buttons fastened the side knee openings.
The band below the knees, sometimes called a garter, was buckled tightly to help hold the stockings up and keep the breeches firmly in place as the man moved. Knee buckles were removable; they had a special T-shaped fitting to allow them to be slipped in place through a buttonhole stitched in the knee band.
Despite its glittering stones, this buckle would have been worn at the back of the neck, nearly hidden by the gentleman's coat collar and wig. Eugene Bond; Silver; marked PS, maker unidentified. These strapless stays laced up the front instead of the back. This arrangement made them suitable for pregnant women, nursing women, and those who did not have assistance while getting dressed.
According to family history, a twentieth-century customer gave this suit to his tailor to settle an unpaid bill. Said to be worn by "a Virginia gentleman," the suit is made of spotted silk velvet.
The knobs on one side of the buckle were slipped into worked buttonholes on the tab of a neck stock. The stock was buckled behind the man's neck. Small-scale enclosed patterns such as the design of this silk textile were considered especially appropriate for men's suits.
The serpentine, or meandering, lines in this brocaded silk are typical of s design. The gown was later remodeled with the plunging neckline, edge-to-edge front closure, and S-curve silhouette that became popular after A paper inscription glued to the bottom of the buckle case states that Philip and Maria Van Rensselaer wore these buckles at their wedding about it actually occurred in and that their descendants, J.
Glen and Pearl Green Sanders, wore them when they married in The silk lining on the box is inscribed with the name Eliza Van Rensselaer. Eliza, or Elizabeth , was the daughter of Philip and Maria.
The combination of multicolor embroidery on a striped ground enhances the richness of this suit. The white waistcoat contrasts with the dark coat and breeches, although the embroidered design echoes that of the coat. This handkerchief features a scene of fox hunting in the British countryside. Can you find the fox?
A popular period hunting song is printed around the edges. A handkerchief similar to this design was worn by John Cockil, an English convict servant and barber who ran away from his Fredericksburg, Virginia, master in The March 19, , Virginia Gazette newspaper states that the runaway was wearing "a red and white Handkerchief round his Neck, with a hunting Song round the Borders of it.
Away to the Copse to the Copse lead away, and now my Boys throw off ye Hounds. I'll warrant he shews us he shews us some Play, See Yonder he skulks thro the Grounds. Each Earth see he try's at in vain, The Cover no safer can find. So he breaks it and scowers amain, And leave's us at distance behind. Cheer up the Good Dogs with the Horn. A sturdy Englishman endures the torture of having his wig powdered by a dandified French barber-hairdresser.
The gentleman wears an apron to protect his clothing from stray powder. Besides constructing hairpieces, wigmakers styled men and women's hair and shaved gentlemen. During the first three-quarters of the eighteenth century, most fashionable men shaved their heads and donned wigs, considered indispensable fashion accessories.
Toward the end of the century, wigs gradually went out of fashion. Men began to wear their own hair, which they had styled and powdered for dressy occasions.
Although few women wore wigs, some added extra curls to their own hair. Epstein; Cotton embroidered with cotton. Sleeve ruffles cascading from the elbows went out of fashion with the newer neoclassical styles. The innovative woman who owned this pair of sleeve ruffles re-fashioned the beautiful embroidery into a collar to fill in the neckline of a dress.
This banyan is more closely tailored than the large kimono-like gowns men also wore for informal occasions. The double-breasted front fastens closed with self-fabric ties. The striped petticoat is woven with linen warps and wool wefts.
Unlike that of typical garment construction methods, the fabric here is used horizontally with the warps running around the body, not up and down. Originally discovered in Connecticut, the petticoat may be the work of a New England weaver. Similar textiles were also produced in Kendal, England. Typical of the fashion dress in the s, the man wears a slim-cut suit with tight knee breeches. The woman wears a profusion of bows and ruffles on her gown and a large cap with extra height.
The English village of Dunmow in Essex had a long-standing tradition in which a married couple that had remained faithful and happy for a year could claim a "gammon" of bacon.
A gammon was the lower end of a side of bacon or a smoked ham. The custom has been revived in the town of Dunmow in modern times, and is still scheduled every four years. If to these Conditions, without any fear, Of your own accord you will freely swear; A Gammon of Bacon you shall receive, And bear it hence with love, and good leave; For this our custom, at Dunmow well known, Tho the sport is ours, the Bacon's your own.
The expectant women in this humorous print wear a variety of kerchiefs and aprons to adapt their clothing to changing body shapes.
Their skirt hems ride up in front, evidence that pregnant women did not usually modify their skirt lengths during this time. Letters and diaries reveal that women went about daily chores and socializing during pregnancy. John Wilkes was a controversial British political figure and a member of parliament who became known for his defense of the rights of ordinary citizens.
In the mid s, he defended the cause of the American colonies. A handkerchief such as this would have been a popular accessory, not only for the citizens of London who shared Wilkes' political views, but also for Americans.
Wilkes holds the Magna Charta, the document that guaranteed greater rights to English citizens. Wilkes steps on papers labeled "General Warrants. The handkerchief also refers to the questionable legality of general, broad-based warrants, which lacked specifics about the alleged crime.
For physical labor and very informal occasions, women wore loose short gowns with separate petticoats as comfortable alternatives to tight-fitting gowns with long, full skirts. Short gowns were relatively inexpensive, as they required a minimum of fabric. The printed cotton added pattern and color to an everyday garment. This rare garment is exceptionally fragile. The iron in the mordant used for the printing has caused some colors to darken to brown and to etch through the cotton.
The brown colors were probably purple when the gown was new. The neckline and back shoulders have stitched casings and drawstrings to provide some fit to the otherwise-unshaped garment. The gown is of small size and may have been worn by a girl. Workingwomen wore aprons of washable linen or cotton, sometimes patterned with checks, such as this example.
The unidentified maker embroidered her initials E F and in minuscule cross-stitches near the waistband. William Daniel had his wallet personalized with his name and the date Inside is a notebook with marbleized covers.
The note pages include paper, as well as black leaves covered in paint with carbon content, similar to a slate, for making easily erasable notes. This humorous print satirizes the fashion for large, glittering buttons on men's suits. About the same time, shoe buckles also became oversized, almost covering the instep. Through his personality and wearing apparel, Benjamin Franklin helped to create the belief that Americans were individualistic, freedom-loving, and immune to royal trappings.
Especially in his later years, Franklin became known for his distinctive appearance, including spectacles, a fur cap, and long hair, which he wore down instead of drawn back in a queue.
Franklin appeared at the court of France's Louis XVI in without the wig that was customary formal dress. He wore a suit of plain dark velvet and no sword, causing an observer to comment, "I should have taken him for a big farmer, so great was his contrast with the other diplomats, who were all powdered, in full dress, and splashed all over with gold and ribbons.
This gown is a dramatic example of a time lag in formal clothing. Although the wide skirt was typical of midth-century styles, the deep point at this gown's back waist indicates a date in the s. The crisp silk textile is dotted with metallic silver threads woven from selvage to selvage, a type of fabric called "silver tissue.
Women frequently carried handkerchiefs in their large tie-on pockets. During the 18th century, handkerchiefs were made of plain white linen or printed textiles, sometimes depicting a scene or sentiment. This handkerchief was also used as a game board and rules for the "Game of the Goose," which was played by throwing a pair of dice.
Each player rolled the dice and added the two numbers together, advancing that number of positions on the game surface. If a player landed in one of the special locations, such as the Ale House, Well, or Prison, he or she had to abide by the rules for that location.
For example, anyone landing on the Death square had to pay a penalty and start over. The player who reached 63 first without going over won the game.
The Game of the Goose Rules 1st This Game is playd with a pair of Dice and any Number of persons may play at it. Fitted interior compartments house the functional but beautiful implements inside: The pocketbook hints at puzzling questions.
The gold outer clasp appears to date to the late 18th century, based on its style and an analysis of the metal. The interior clasp, knife, and nail file date after Because the interior enamel clasp is backed by the pink lining, the lining must also date after Did someone remodel and reline a late 18th century purse in the s or s?
Was the purse completely remade in the 19th century using parts from several older purses? For what occasion did someone create such a beautiful assemblage of materials? Throughout the 18th century, women wore triangles or folded squares of fabric over the shoulders and around their necks for warmth, modesty, and decoration. These accessories were known as kerchiefs, or neck handkerchiefs.
In the 19th century, similar garments were called fichus. In the s, fashionable kerchiefs were large and worn puffed out over the chest. Calashes had a series of reeds or other flexible materials inserted between channels in the silk to hold the bonnet away from the head and thus preserve elaborate hair styles from being crushed.
The name of the calash came from a type of carriage with a folding hood, not unlike the cloth convertible top on a modern automobile. This ensemble consists of a jacket, petticoat, and a vest worn under the jacket. The sleeveless vest, which has adjustable lacings at the center back, expands the waist size for use during pregnancy.
The jacket can also be worn without the vest. Long-nap wool or mohair velvet, called shagg, was popular for workingmen's clothing and livery breeches. In contrast to today's construction methods, these breeches were cut with the nap running in different directions on the front and back, a feature that is especially evident at the inseam.
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